Esophagus is an upper part of the digestive tract, which comprises the mouth, throat and stomach
It is the gateway for food, liquids and air to pass from the mouth into the stomach. When the lining of the esophagus is irritated or damaged, inflammation may occur. When this happens, esophageal sphincter (ES) is unable to stop the flow of liquids into the stomach.
The most common type of esophageal disease is eosinophilia, which is caused by too much eosinophil in the esophagi experience. This occurs when the body's immune reaction to an irritant causes an overproduction of eosinophiles. Allergic reactions to certain foods and pollutants may cause eczema, which is characterized by red patches on the skin.
Acid reflux esophagus is usually caused by a condition called gastroesophageitis. This form is common in those with weak immune systems with HIV or AIDS. Normally, the upper part of the esophageal tract contracts with the food and liquids which enters the stomach. But when the esophageal sphincter is weak or not strong enough to prevent the passage of the liquid into the stomach, acid reflux esophagitis may occur.
There are two types of esophageal sphincters: LES and HOES. The former keeps the food from entering the stomach while HOES prevents the liquid from passing through the stomach. There are two types of enzymes, L-arginine and proline, which are found in LES and HOES.
The LES is responsible to remove food particles that are too large for the esophagus to absorb. They come in different strengths and can be used to break down the food particles. The LES can be activated to make them less active or to reduce the strength of the acid content in the stomach.
If the LES muscle is weak, then food particles that are too large will not pass through the esophageal tract easily. causing the acid in the stomach to increase. This results in the production of more LES protein.
The acid reflux can lead to the regurgitation of acid if there is an insufficient amount of acid in the stomach
Since there are esophageal acids produced by the LES, these acids go to the esophagus which makes it inflamed.
Acid reflux can be treated in different ways, depending on the cause and severity. Usually, esophageal surgery is performed to remove the LES muscle. It is also possible to relieve the condition by taking medications.
There are some home remedies that can ease the symptoms associated with acid reflux. For example, taking a warm bath after eating or drinking a warm drink helps in reducing acid production in the stomach. Some people prefer to take a cold compress before sleeping, especially when they are lying down or sitting.
Taking a glass of herbal tea is also beneficial. There are certain herbs that are effective in reducing the symptoms of acid reflux. such as Cayenne pepper, dandelion root, and fennel seed.
There are other natural and herbal treatments that can treat acid reflux. such as chewing on an apple after every meal, drinking herbal tea, taking garlic tablets, taking fiber supplements, and eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
In order to prevent acid reflux, it is recommended to avoid eating foods that are hard to digest or can irritate the esophagus, such as those that contain high levels of fat and cholesterol. These can be avoided by taking supplements that can increase the LES activity. To avoid acid reflux in its early stages, individuals with acid reflux should avoid consuming fatty and fried foods and should drink plenty of water.
One of the causes of acid reflux is smoking. Therefore, quitting smoking is important. Smoking increases the risk of acid reflux because smoking relaxes the esophagus.